Key terms and Acronyms

ACGIH   Association Advancing Occupational and Environmental Health

ACNFP  Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes

ADE        Acceptable daily exposure

ADI         Acceptable daily intake

ADI “not specified”          JECFA term for a substance considered to have a very low toxicity for which no safe upper-limit of intake is established

AHAW   EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare

AI            Acceptable intake

AI            Adequate intake

AF           Assessment factor

ANS       EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources Added to Food

AOEL     Acceptable operator exposure level

AOP       Adverse outcome pathway

APVMA Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority

ARfD      Acute (oral) reference dose

AS           Allometric scaling

ATSDR   Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

BfR         The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment

BIBRA    British Industrial Biological Research Association

BMC      Benchmark concentration

BMCL    Lower 95% confidence limit on the benchmark concentration

BMCL10 Lower 95% confidence limit on the benchmark concentration corresponding to a 10% relative change in the end-point

BMD10   Benchmark dose for a 10% response

BMDL10 Lower 95% confidence limit on the benchmark dose for a 10% response

BPR        Biocidal Products Regulation (EU) No 528/2012

BW         Body weight

CAS RN Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number

CEF         EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids

CICAD   WHO Concise International Chemical Assessment Documents

CIR         Cosmetic Ingredient Review

C&L       Classification and labelling

Chesar  Chemical safety assessment and reporting tool

CLP        Classification, labelling and packaging (Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008)

CMR      Carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic substance

COC       Committee on Carcinogenicity of Chemicals In Food, Consumer Products and the Environment (UK)

COM      Committee on Mutagenicity of Chemicals In Food, Consumer Products and the Environment (UK)

CONTAM             EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain

Cosmetics Regulation (EC) 1223/2009

COT        Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals In Food, Consumer Products and the Environment (UK)

DECOS  Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety

DMEL    Derived minimal effect level

DNEL     Derived no effect level

DRV       Dietary reference value

DSD       Dangerous Substances Directive (67/548/EEC)

DPD       Dangerous Preparations Directive (1999/45/EC)

EC          European Commission

EC3        Derived from the LLNA, the EC3 is the estimated concentration of a test substance needed to produce an SI of 3. ECETOC definitions of potency are: extreme sensitizer (EC3 value <0.1); strong sensitizer (EC3 >0.1 – ≤1); moderate sensitizer (EC3 value >1 – <10; and weak sensitizer (EC3 value >10).

EC50       Half maximal effective concentration

ECETOC European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals

ED50       Half maximal effective dose

ECDD     WHO expert committee on drug dependence

ECHA     European Chemicals Agency

EFSA      European Food Safety Authority

EHC        Environmental Health Criteria

EMA      European Medicines Agency

EPA        Environmental Protection Agency

ESL         Effects screening level

EU          European Union

FEEDAP EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed

FSANZ   Food Standards Australia New Zealand

FAO       Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

FDA        Food and Drugs Administration

GESTIS  IFA database on hazardous substances

GHS       Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals

GLP        Good laboratory practice

GRAS     Generally recognised as safe

HBGV    Health-based guidance value

HC          Health Canada

HCV       Health Criteria Value

HERA     Human and Environmental Risk Assessment on ingredients of household cleaning products

IARC      International Agency for Research on Cancer

IC50         Median inhibitory concentration

ICD         International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems

ICH         International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use

i.p.          Intraperitoneal

i.v.          Intravenous

IATA      Integrated approach on testing and assessment

IFA         Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

IPCS       International Programme on Chemical Safety

IRIS        Integrated Risk Information System (US EPA)

ISO         International Organization for Standardization

ITAP       Initial Targeted Assessment Profile

ITAR       Initial Target Assessment Report

IUCLID  International Uniform Chemical Information Database

JECFA    Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives

JMPR     Joint FAO/WHO meeting on Pesticide Residues

KE           Key event

LC0          Maximum tolerable concentration

LC50        Median lethal concentration (i.e. the concentration that is lethal to 50% of the exposed group)

LD0              Maximum tolerable dose

LD50        Median lethal dose (i.e.  the dose that is lethal to 50% of the exposed group)

LLNA      Local lymph node assay

LOAEC   Lowest observed adverse effect concentration

LOEC      Lowest observed effect concentration

LOAEL   Lowest observed adverse effect level

LOEL      Lowest observed effect level

MAC      Maximum acceptable concentration (in drinking water)

MAL       Maximum acceptable level

MET10    10% minimum elicitation threshold

mg/kg bw            Milligrams per kilogram of body weight

MIE        Molecular initiating event

MoA      Mode of action

MoE       Margin of exposure (risk assessment)

MoS       Margin of safety

MRL       Minimal risk level

MRL       Maximum residue level

MTD      Maximum tolerated dose

NDA       EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies

NESIL     No expected sensitisation induction level

NICNAS National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment

NIOSH   National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

NOAEC No observed adverse effect concentration

NOAEL  No observed adverse effect level

NOEC    No observed effect concentration

NOEL     No observed effect level

NOGEL  No observed genotoxic effect level

NRC       National Research Council

NTP        National Toxicology Program

OECD     Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

OEL        Occupational exposure limit

OEHHA Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment

PBPK     Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling

PDE        Permitted Daily Exposure

PEC        Predicted environmental concentration

PHE        Public Health England

PNEC     Predicted no-effect concentration

POD       Point of Departure

p.o.        Peroral

PPR        EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues

PRI         Population reference intake

Proposition 65   California’s Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act

QSAR     Quantitative structure–activity relationship

RAC        Committee for Risk Assessment

RCR        Risk Characterisation Ratio

RD50       The concentration required to reduce the respiratory rate by 50%

RDA       Recommended dietary allowance

RDI         Recommended daily intake

REACH  Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation & Restriction of Chemicals; Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006

ReV        Reference Value

RfC         Reference concentration (for chronic inhalation exposure)

RfD         Reference dose (for chronic oral exposure)

RIFM     Research Institute for Fragrance Materials

ROC       NTP Report on Carcinogens

RPA        Reference point for action

S9           Induced mammalian liver post-mitochondrial fraction used for metabolic activation

SAR        Structure–activity relationship

SACN     Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition

s.c.         Subcutaneous

SCCS      Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety

SCHER   Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks

SCHEER Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental and Emerging Risks

SCENIHR              Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks

SCOEL   Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits

SI            Stimulation Index. Derived from the LLNA,  the SI is the ratio of lymphocyte proliferation in a treated group to that in the vehicle control group. An SI of ≥3 is considered a positive result for sensitisation

SIAM     SIDS intial assessment meeting

SIAP       SIDS Initial Assessment Profile

SIAR       SIDS Initial Assessment Report

SIDS       Screening Information Dataset

STEL       Short term exposure limit

T25         The chronic daily dose in mg/kg bw which will give 25% of the animals tumours at a specific tissue site

TC           Tolerable concentration

TCA        Tolerable concentration in air

TD50      The chronic daily dose in mg/kg bw which will give 50% of the animals tumours at a specific tissue site

TCEQ     The Texas Committee on Environmental Quality

TG          Test guideline

TGA       Therapeutics Goods Administration

TDI         Tolerable daily intake

TLV         Threshold limit value

TPD        Tobacco Products Directive (2014/40/EU)

TPD2      Revision of the Tobacco Products Directive

TSCA      Toxic Substances Control Act

TTC         Threshold of Toxicological Concern

TWA      Time weighted average

TWI        Tolerable weekly intake

UF          Uncertainty factor

USEPA  United States Environmental Protection Agency

VKM      Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

WHO     World Health Organization


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