Recent years have seen a rapid expansion in the market for a wide range of nicotine-delivery devices, that aim to offer adults an alternative to the harms associated with smoking. Notably these include e-cigarettes, or ‘vapes’, which, rather than combusting tobacco, heat an “e-liquid” containing nicotine, solvents (propylene glycol and vegetable glycerin (PG/VG)), and flavourings, into a vapour that is inhaled by the consumer. We have been working on the front-line of the e-cigarette sector since its inception, providing our clients with critical safety evaluations to ensure regulatory compliance (e.g. with EU TPD, UK TRPR and/or US FDA PMTA). We have also been involved in the assessment of nicotine for EU REACH and EU CLP purposes, and in the safety assessment and preparation of regulatory data packages of a range of products including heated tobacco, nicotine inhalers, snus, nicotine pouches, and gums/lozenges.